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100                               FIBST DISCOVERY OF BUDDHIST
heretic. The objections to oilier krge cities were, either that the king*s pedi*
gree had some flaw; or that he was a Brahman, not a Ksbatriya by caste 5
or that he had already a krge family; or that the people were insubordinate
and self-wiled. Banaras and Ujaiyin were considered unworthy for a similar
reason as Mathura, viz., that at the former there were four heretical schools of
philosophy, and that ihe king of the latter did not believe in a future state.
The use of the word * heretical* Is to bİ noted, for it clearly indicates that
Buddha did not intend to break entirely with Hinduism 5 or rather, like the
English £ Reformers5 of the 16th century, and Dr. Boffinger and his "old Catho-
lics" on the continent of Europe at the present day, or B&bn Kesav Chandra
Sea in Calcutta, or, in short, lite all subverters of established systems, he found
it politic to disguise the novelty of his theories by retaining the old terminology,
and thus IB vesting them with the prestige of a spurious antiquity*
In consequence of the changes in religion and the long lapse of time, the
whole of ihİ aaeieiLt Buddhist buildings described by the Chinese pilgrims had
been overthrown, buried, and forgotten, till quite recently, when some fragments
of them have been again brought to light. The first - discovery was made by
General Qmningham, in 1853, who noticed some capitals and pillars lying about
within the enclosure of the Katra, the site of the Hindu temple of KesavE
Beva. A subsequent search revealed the architrave of a gateway and other
sculptures, including in partieukr a standing figure of Buddha, three and-fc-
half feet high, which waa found at the bottom of a well, with an insoriptiosi
at its base recording the gift of the statue to the c Yasa Vihara,* or € Convent
of Glory,* which may be taken as the name of one of the Buddhist establish-
ments that had existed on the spot. The date of the presentation was recorded
in figures which could not be certainly deciphered.*
A far more important discovery was made in I860, in digging the foun-
dation of the Magistrate and Collector's new cİurt-house.   The site selected for
this building was an extensive mound overhanging the Agra toad at the en-
trance to the civil station*   It had always been, regarded as merely the remains
of a series of brick-kilns, and had been further protected against exploration
by the fact that It was crowned by a small mosque,   This was, for military
reasons, blown down during the mutiny; and afterwards, on clearing away the
rubbish and excavating for the new foundations, it was found to hare been
erected, in accordance with the common usage of the Mnhammadan conquerors^
upon the ruins of a destroyed temple.   A number of Buddhist statues^ pillars^
* SMs staine vma Ğrne of those remoTed by Dr. Plajfair to fee Ifasenm a$ Agza,